Public employment offices only find employment for less than 2 out of 100 workers

Men working part-time to care for dependents rise by 72.9% in 2022, but women far outnumber them


Only 1.9% of wage earners were hired in 2022 thanks to the intermediation of public employment offices, a percentage that has decreased by one tenth compared to 2021 (2%) and that remains more or less unchanged, up or down a tenth , for years.

According to data from the Active Population Survey (EPA) published this Friday by the National Statistics Institute (INE), 319,400 people obtained a job last year thanks to the mediation of a public employment office.

This data contrasts with that registered by the temporary employment agencies (ETT), whose intermediation rate doubled that of the public employment offices.

Specifically, the number of employees who were hired through an ETT in 2022 reached the figure of 657,900, which represents an intermediation rate of 3.8%. However, this percentage has been reduced by three tenths compared to 2021, when temporary employment agencies found employment for 4.1% of wage earners.


From the EPA of 2022 it is also extracted that most of the Spanish workers have a boss, but no subordinates. Specifically, almost seven out of ten workers were in this situation in 2022.

Of the total number of employed persons recorded last year, 9.9% had neither bosses nor subordinates (independent worker), 7.3% were intermediate managers; 6.7% were directors of a small company, department or branch; 6.2% were in charge, and 0.6% held a position of director of a large or medium-sized company.

The percentage of employees, that is, of workers with a boss and without subordinates, increased by four tenths in 2022 compared to 2021, standing at 69%, while the percentage of middle managers and managers climbed one tenth, and that of directors of small companies or branches grew four tenths.

For their part, the proportion of independent workers (without bosses or subordinates) fell seven tenths in 2022, to 9.9%, while the directors of large or medium-sized companies decreased one tenth.

The percentages of men exceed those of women in all types of job positions, except in the case of the employee position (with bosses and without subordinates), where women exceed men by 11.3 points.

The greatest differences between both sexes occur in self-employed workers, where men exceed the proportion of women by 3.5 points, and in directors of small companies, who present a gap of 3.4 points.

In 2022, the number of employed increased by an average of 617,000 people, reaching 20,390,600 people. The establishments with 10 to 49 workers, with 409,700 more people, and those with 50 to 249 workers, with 269,600 more, benefited the most from this advance in the occupation.

In contrast, establishments with 250 or more workers were the only ones that cut their number of employed, with 80,300 fewer people than in 2021.


Throughout 2022, a total of 383,500 employed people worked part-time to have more time to care for dependent people, 7.3% more than in 2021.

The majority of employees who opted for part-time to perform care tasks were women, 354,800, 4.1% more than in 2021. In the case of men, a total of 28,700 took part-time to also be able to act as caregivers, 72.9% more than in 2021.


The data from this subsample published today by the INE confirm a decrease in teleworking as the pandemic has been left behind.

Thus, the percentage of employed people who worked from home for more than half the days went from 9.5% in 2021 to 7.6% in 2021 and the proportion of employed persons who did not work any day from home rose from 83, 9% to 85.2%. For their part, 6.3% of employees teleworked occasionally in 2022, compared to 5.8% in 2021.

Faced with the drop in teleworking, the number of employed people who had to work on weekends increased. Thus, 34.5% worked at least one Saturday a month, half a point more than in 2021, and 21.3% of the employed had to do so at least one Sunday a month, compared to 20.6% in 2021.

In addition, the percentage of employed persons with night shifts rose from 10.6% to 11.8%. For 6.6% of the workers, this type of shift was occasional, while 5.2% had a night shift for more than half of the days worked. The percentage of male night workers, with 13.8%, exceeded that of women (9.4%).